Role of apoptosis in pathogenesis and treatment of bone-related diseases.

Mollazadeh S, Fazly Bazzaz BS, Kerachian MA. Role of apoptosis in pathogenesis
and treatment of bone-related diseases. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015 Jan 28;10:15.
doi: 10.1186/s13018-015-0152-5.



In this article, bone cells and their intercellular communications have been reviewed. Gap junctions and hemichannels are the main routes of interactions in bone tissue. They play a substantial role in survival and cell death, since pro-apoptotic signals can propagate through them. Different adhesion molecules are required for apoptosis, particularly caspase family as well as noncaspase proteases. The disruption outcome of apoptosis could result in bone-related diseases such as osteonecrosis. Anti-apoptotic strategies include inhibition of caspase, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase (PARP), and Bcl-2 proteins as well as induction of the PKB/Akt pathway and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins. Thus, understanding the mechanism of apoptosis gives detailed insights of anti-apoptotic molecular targets. Based on these targets, different treatments were designed and produced such as estrogen replacement therapy, administration of different bisphosphonates, raloxifene, calcitonin, sodium fluoride, calcium, and vitamin D. As a result, new applicable drugs for treatment of related bone problems can be proposed for clinical approach especially in the early stage of diseases.

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