41. Define tone?

It is defined as resistance of muscle to passive stretch


42. Define spasticity?

Spasticity is a type of hypertonia due to upper motor neuron lesion, which is velocity dependent, has sudden release after reaching maximum resistance and predominantly affects antigravity muscles  - Clasp Knife

43. Define Rigidity?

It is increased tone that is persistent throughout the range of motion and affects both flexors and extensors equally. It is due to affection of extrapyramidal tracts – lead pipe, cog wheel

44. Define Fasciculation?

It is a visible or palpable twitch of single motor unit and is due to lower motor neuron involvement


45. Define Spasms?

These are episodes of involuntary contraction in one or more muscles and are due to upper motor neuron affection

46. Define Cramps?

Painful Spasm of single muscle that produces a palpable knot within the muscle for seconds to minutes and is relieved by passive stretch of the muscle of spontaneously

47. Define Clonus?

Clonus is a rhythmic, repetitive, contraction of a muscle in response to passive stretch due to release phenomenon of stretch reflex secondary to upper motor neuron lesion

48. Why do inflammtion of elbow cases flexion deformity?

The elbow has the largest capsular capacity in 70° of flexion and any intra-articular effusion, some believe, will cause the patient to assume this elbow position to decrease pressure and pain.

[reference: Gallay SH, Richards RR, O’Driscoll SW. Intraarticular capacity and compliance of stiff and normal elbows. Arthroscopy 1993;9(1):9–13.]

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